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Showing posts from April, 2018

Dividends and expropriation, Faccio, Lang, and Young (2001 AER)

The failures in East Asian corporate governance are blamed for the East Asian financial crisis.  In East Asia, the predominant form of ownership is control by a family, termed as "crony capitalism", and the top managers are often from the family. In Faccio, Lang, and Young (2001 AER, citation 1861), they document ownership and control structures among East Asian corporations and analyze the salient agency problem, namely the expropriation of outside shareholders by controlling shareholders, by looking at dividend behavior.

To start with, they show an extraordinary concentration of control in East Asia, whereby 6 groups control more than 20% of the corporations in the 9 most advanced East Asian economies. This control is obscured behind layers of corporations, hence insulated against the forces of competition on less-then-transparent capital markets. However, family control is also predominant in West Europe, though the group sizes are smaller, with 5 groups control about 10%…

TFP Differences and Capital Misallocation in Developing Countries: Hsieh and Klenow (2009) and Virgiliu and Xu (2014)

Cross-country income differences for the most part reflect differences in total factor productivity (TFP) across countries. But what could explain the differences in TFP in different countries?

Hsieh and Klenow (2009, QJE, citation 3021), use establishment level data in manufacturing to measure TFP gaps between China and India and the U.S. They find that misallocation in labor and capital could explain 30%-60% of the TFP differences between developing and developed countries, which means that  China and India have low TFP mainly because that resources are not allocated in the most efficient way.

Virgiliu and Xu (2014, AER, citation 571) extend the framework to study the role of financial frictions in determining TFP. They focus on one specific type of misallocation, distortion in capital allocation generated by financial frictions. However, they find that this type of misallocation explains only a small part, 5%- 10%, of the TFP differences. However, financial frictions reduces new entr…